Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field.
Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all appropriate staging investigations, and to search for molecular targets of therapy. In this article, we review current concepts in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilia and eosinophil-related organ damage in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In addition, we discuss classifications of eosinophil disorders and related syndromes as well as diagnostic algorithms and standard treatment for various eosinophil-related disorders.