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Glossary

  • -Poiesis
    <h4 class="mg">-Poiesis</h4><div class="mg">making of -
  • Absolute Risk Reduction
    <h4 class="mg">Absolute Risk Reduction</h4><div class="mg">The difference in the incidence of poor outcomes between the intervention group of a study and the control group. <br /><br />For example, if 20 per cent of people die in the intervention group and 30 per cent in the control group, the ARR is 10 per cent (30–20 per cent).<br /><br />
  • Abstract
    <h4 class="mg">Abstract</h4><div class="mg">A summary of the main features of a study.<br /><br />Rather than using abstracts, major journals now favour subheadings (similar to those in the main paper) to make it a structured abstract. These subheadings are, for example: introduction, methods, results and conclusions.<br /><br />
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    <h4 class="mg">Acute Myeloid Leukemia</h4><div class="mg"> Abbreviated AML, also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells.
  • Adenopathy
    <h4 class="mg">Adenopathy</h4><div class="mg">The enlargement or swelling of lymph nodes.
  • Admixe
    <h4 class="mg">Admix</h4><div class="mg">To mix or to blend; "Hyaline casts were admixed with neutrophils"
  • Adverse Reaction
    <h4 class="mg">Adverse Reaction</h4><div class="mg">A side effect or unintended bad outcome of a treatment.
  • Aerophagia
    <h4 class="mg">Aerophagia</h4><div class="mg">A condition that occurs when a person swallows too much air, which goes to the stomach. It causes abdominal bloating and frequent belching and may cause pain.
  • Aggregate
    <h4 class="mg">Aggregate</h4><div class="mg">A collection of cells that are gathered together to form a total quantity. A cluster of cells.
  • AHNMD
    <h4 class="mg">AHNMD</h4><div class="mg">Associated Clonal Hematological Non-mast Cell Lineage Disease, a blood disorder which may or may not be cancerous in nature.
  • Allergen
    <h4 class="mg">Allergen</h4><div class="mg">A type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
  • Amino Acid
    <h4 class="mg">Amino Acid</h4><div class="mg">Organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. <br /><br />There are 20 amino acids. The sequence of the amino acids in a chain determines the type of protein. <br /><br />Think of an amino-acid as small lego blocks to build a house (protein). The combination of lego blocks put together determines the aspect of the house.
  • Anaphylaxis
    <h4 class="mg">Anaphylaxis</h4><div class="mg">A severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and which can result in death if not treated immediately. Also called an Anaphilactoid reaction
  • Anecdotal Evidence
    <h4 class="mg">Anecdotal Evidence</h4><div class="mg">Evidence that comes from an individual experience. <br /><br />This may be the experience of a person with an illness or the experience of a practitioner based on one or more patients outside a formal research study.
  • Anemia
    <h4 class="mg">Anemia</h4><div class="mg">(meaning lack of blood) A decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or having less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.
  • Antagonist
    <h4 class="mg">Antagonist</h4><div class="mg">Molecules that bind the receptor and block binding of the agonist, but fail to trigger intracellular signalling events. <br /><br />Antagonists are like certain types of bureaucrats - they don't themselves perform useful work, but block the activities of those that do have the capacity to contribute. Hormone antagonists are widely used as drugs.
  • Antibody
    <h4 class="mg">Antibody</h4><div class="mg"><br />Abbreviated Ab, also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a protein produced by white blood cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.<br /><a href="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Antibody.png"><img class="aligncenter" alt="antibody" src="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Antibody.png" width="255" height="360" /></a>
  • Antigen
    <h4 class="mg">Antigen</h4><div class="mg"><br />Any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. <br /><br />An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen. An antigen may also be formed within the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells. <br /><br />The name antigen comes from 'antibody generator'.
  • Antigen-Presenting Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Antigen-presenting Cell</h4><div class="mg">A cell that displays foreign antigens. <br /><br />It's a cell which has victoriously broken down a foreign substance and is showing off the broken bits (fragments) on its surface, so that other cells can see and then recognise which bits are deemed to be harmful. The "showing-off" of fragments is done on the cell surface atop a kind of pedestal called an MHC type 2 complex (MHC stands for major histocompatibility complex).
  • Aplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Aplasia</h4><div class="mg">Defective development or congenital absence of a limb, organ, or other body part.
  • Apoptosis
    <h4 class="mg">Apoptosis</h4><div class="mg"><br />Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that may occur in multicellular organisms.
  • ASM
    <h4 class="mg">ASM</h4><div class="mg">Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis.
  • Asthenia
    <h4 class="mg">Asthenia</h4><div class="mg">A condition in which the body lacks or has lost strength either as a whole or in any of its parts. It denotes symptoms of physical weakness and loss of strength. <br /><br />General asthenia occurs in many chronic wasting diseases (such as anemia and cancer), sleep disorders or chronic disorders of the heart, lungs or kidneys, and is probably most marked in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • Atypical
    <h4 class="mg">Atypical</h4><div class="mg">Not representative of a type, group, or class: "a sample of people who are rather atypical of the target audience".
  • Autosomal
    <h4 class="mg">Autosomal</h4><div class="mg">Refers to any of the chromosomes other than the sex-determining chromosomes (i.e., the X and Y chromosomes) or the genes on these chromosomes
  • Autosomal Dominant
    <h4 class="mg">Autosomal Dominant</h4><div class="mg">One mutated copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient for a person to be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder. Each affected person usually has one affected parent . Autosomal dominant disorders tend to occur in every generation of an affected family.<br /><br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="In this example, a man with an autosomal dominant disorder has two affected children and two unaffected children." src="http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/autodominant.jpg" />
  • Autosomal Recessive
    <h4 class="mg">Autosomal Recessive</h4><div class="mg">Two mutated copies of the gene are present in each cell when a person has an autosomal recessive disorder. An affected person usually has unaffected parents who each carry a single copy of the mutated gene (and are referred to as carriers) . Autosomal recessive disorders are typically not seen in every generation of an affected family.<br /><br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="In this example, two unaffected parents each carry one copy of a gene mutation for an autosomal recessive disorder. They have one affected child and three unaffected children, two of which carry one copy of the gene mutation." src="http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/autorecessive.jpg" />
  • B Cell
    <h4 class="mg">B Cell</h4><div class="mg">A type of white blood cell that makes antibodies. B cells are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Also called B lymphocyte.
  • Bacteria
    <h4 class="mg">Bacteria</h4><div class="mg">A large group of single-cell microorganisms. Some cause infections and disease in animals and humans. The singular of bacteria is bacterium.
  • Bacterial Toxin
    <h4 class="mg">Bacterial Toxin</h4><div class="mg">A harmful substance made by bacteria that can cause illness. Bacterial toxins can also be made in the laboratory and attached to monoclonal antibodies that bind to cancer cells. These toxins may help kill cancer cells without harming normal cells.
  • Barbiturate
    <h4 class="mg">Barbiturate</h4><div class="mg">A type of drug that causes a decrease in brain activity. Barbiturates may be used to treat insomnia, seizures, and convulsions, and to relieve anxiety and tension before surgery. A barbiturate is a type of central nervous system (CNS) depressant.
  • Basal Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Basal Cell</h4><div class="mg">A small, round cell found in the lower part (or base) of the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    <h4 class="mg">Basal Cell Carcinoma</h4><div class="mg">Cancer that begins in the lower part of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin). <br /><br />It may appear as a small white or flesh-colored bump that grows slowly and may bleed. Basal cell carcinomas are usually found on areas of the body exposed to the sun. Basal cell carcinomas rarely metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. They are the most common form of skin cancer. Also called basal cell cancer.
  • Basophil
    <h4 class="mg">Basophil</h4><div class="mg">Basophils are a type of white blood which act very much like mast cells. They also produce mediators like histamine when triggered by an allergen. The difference is that basophils circulate in the blood, while mast cells are stationary in tissues.
  • Benefit
    <h4 class="mg">Benefit</h4><div class="mg">(of a health intervention) The extent to which one’s lifespan is increased and/or quality of life improved.
  • Benzodiazepine
    <h4 class="mg">Benzodiazepine</h4><div class="mg">A type of drug used to relieve anxiety and insomnia (trouble sleeping). <br /><br />Benzodiazepines are also used to relax muscles and prevent seizures. They increase the effect of a chemical in the brain called GABA, which is a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another). This causes brain activity to slow down. Benzodiazepines are a type of CNS depressant.
  • Bias
    <h4 class="mg">Bias</h4><div class="mg">Something that distorts the real effect in a study, so that the researchers get the wrong answer. The term does not suggest that the researchers are biased, but rather that sources of error can easily occur in studies.
  • Bioactive
    <h4 class="mg">Bioactive</h4><div class="mg">Relating to a substance that has an effect on living tissue.</div>
  • Bioavailable
    <h4 class="mg">Bioavailable</h4><div class="mg">The ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body. <br /><br />Orally bioavailable means that a drug or other substance that is taken by mouth can be absorbed and used by the body.
  • Biochemical Mediators
    <h4 class="mg">Biochemical Mediators</h4><div class="mg">For the purposes of this site, we will define biochemical mediators as the chemicals contained or produced by mast cells upon degranulation.<br /><br />The most commonly known are histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin and a group of inflammatory agents called cytokines.
  • Biomarker
    <h4 class="mg">Biomarker</h4><div class="mg">A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. <br /><br />A biomarker may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. Also called molecular marker and signature molecule.
  • Biopsy
    <h4 class="mg">Biopsy</h4><div class="mg">The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist.<br /><br />The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include:<br /><br />1. incisional biopsy, in which only a sample of tissue is removed;<br />2. excisional biopsy, in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed; and<br />3. needle biopsy, in which a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle.<br /><br />When a wide needle is used, the procedure is called a core biopsy. When a thin needle is used, the procedure is called a fine-needle aspiration biopsy
  • Bisphosphonate
    <h4 class="mg">Bisphosphonate</h4><div class="mg">A class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone mass, used to treat osteoporosis and bone pain caused by some types of cancer. <br /><br />Bisphosphonates inhibit a type of bone cell that breaks down bone. Also called diphosphonate.
  • Blinding
    <h4 class="mg">Blinding</h4><div class="mg">Methods of preventing individuals, healthcare providers and those assessing outcome in a study from knowing whether the participant is in the experimental or control group. <br /><br />In blinding, only the patient is unaware whether (s)he is receiving an active drug.
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
    <h4 class="mg">Blood Brain Barrier</h4><div class="mg">A network of blood vessels and tissue that is made up of closely spaced cells and helps keep harmful substances from reaching the brain. <br /><br />The blood-brain barrier lets some substances, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and general anesthetics, pass into the brain. It also keeps out bacteria and other substances, such as many anticancer drugs. Also called BBB.
  • BMD Scan
    <h4 class="mg">BMD Scan</h4><div class="mg">An imaging test that measures bone density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain volume of bone) by passing x-rays with two different energy levels through the bone. <br /><br />It is used to diagnose osteoporosis (decrease in bone mass and density). Also called bone mineral density scan, DEXA, DEXA scan, dual energy x-ray absorptiometric scan, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and DXA.
  • Bone Marrow
    <h4 class="mg">Bone Marrow</h4><div class="mg">Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced in the heads of long bones, in a process known as hematopoesis. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans. (Source: Wikipedia)<br /><a href="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/bonemarrow.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-948 aligncenter" alt="Bone Marrow picture" src="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/bonemarrow-289x300.jpg" width="289" height="300" /></a>
  • Bone Marrow Aspiration
    <h4 class="mg">Bone Marrow Aspiration</h4><div class="mg">A procedure in which a small sample of bone marrow is removed, usually from the hip bone, breastbone, or thigh bone. <br /><br /><img alt="Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy; drawing shows a patient lying face down on a table and a Jamshidi needle (a long, hollow needle) being inserted into the hip bone. Inset shows the Jamshidi needle being inserted through the skin into the bone marrow of the hip bone." src="http://m.cancer.gov/images/cdr/live/CDR554337-179.jpg" />
  • Bone Marrow Cellularity
    <h4 class="mg">Bone Marrow Cellularity</h4><div class="mg">Marrow cellularity is the volume ratio of hematopoiesis and fat. <br /><br />Cellularity is age dependent. In newborns, all marrow is hematopoietic (shows 100% cellularity), with age hematopoiesis diminishes, and the amount of fat increases. <br /><br />Normal cellularity of an adult hematopoietic bone marrow ranges between 30 – 70% and changes under pathological conditions  —  we talk of hypercellular (over 70%), normocellular (30 – 70%) or hypocellular (under 30%) bone marrow.
  • Breakthrough Pain
    <h4 class="mg">Breakthrough Pain</h4><div class="mg">Intense increases in pain that occur with rapid onset even when pain-control medication is being used. Breakthrough pain can occur spontaneously or in relation to a specific activity.
  • Bronchoconstriction
    <h4 class="mg">Bronchoconstriction</h4><div class="mg">The constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
  • Bullous
    <h4 class="mg">Bullous</h4><div class="mg">Characterized by blisters or bullae on the skin.
  • c-KIT
    <h4 class="mg">c-KIT</h4><div class="mg">A protein found on the surface of many different types of cells. It binds to a substance called stem cell factor (SCF), which causes certain types of blood cells to grow. <br /><br />C-kit may also be found in higher than normal amounts, or in a changed form, on some types of cancer cells, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and melanoma. Measuring the amount of c-kit in tumor tissue may help diagnose cancer and plan treatment. C-kit is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase and a type of tumor marker. Also called CD117 and stem cell factor receptor.
  • Calcification
    <h4 class="mg">Calcification</h4><div class="mg">Deposits of calcium in the tissues.
  • Cannabinoid
    <h4 class="mg">Cannabinoid</h4><div class="mg">A type of chemical in marijuana that causes drug-like effects all through the body, including the central nervous system and the immune system. <br /><br />The main active cannabinoid in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabinoids may help treat the symptoms of cancer or the side effects of cancer treatment.
  • Capillary
    <h4 class="mg">Capillary</h4><div class="mg">The smallest type of blood vessel. <br /><br />A capillary connects an arteriole (small artery) to a venule (small vein) to form a network of blood vessels in almost all parts of the body. The wall of a capillary is thin and leaky, and capillaries are involved in the exchange of fluids and gases between tissues and the blood.
  • Carbon Dioxide
    <h4 class="mg">Carbon Dioxide</h4><div class="mg">A colorless, odorless gas. It is a waste product made by the body. Carbon dioxide travels in the blood from the body’s tissues to the lungs. Breathing out clears carbon dioxide from the lungs.
  • Carbon Monoxide
    <h4 class="mg">Carbon Monoxide</h4><div class="mg">A poisonous gas that has no color or odor. It is given off by burning fuel (as in exhaust from cars or household heaters) and tobacco products. Carbon monoxide prevents red blood cells from carrying enough oxygen for cells and tissues to live.<br />
  • Carcinoid
    <h4 class="mg">Carcinoid</h4><div class="mg">A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites. <br /><br />Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
  • Cardiology
    <h4 class="mg">Cardiology</h4><div class="mg">A medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart.
  • Cardiovascular
    <h4 class="mg">Cardiovascular</h4><div class="mg">Having to do with the heart and blood vessels.
  • Case Control Study
    <h4 class="mg">Case–Control Study</h4><div class="mg">Involves selecting people who have the outcome of interest (the "cases", meaning the individuals who do have the specific condition which is being researched), and a control group without the outcome of interest (individuals who do not have the specific condition which is researched), and looking backwards in time to see if the groups were exposed to a supposed cause.<br /><br />These studies are not considered high-quality evidence unless the association is very strong; for example, case–control studies on lung cancer and smoking.Case–control studies are either population based or hospital based. The latter is the less reliable of the two.<br />
  • Case-Control Study
    <h4 class="mg">Case-Control Study</h4><div class="mg">A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). <br /><br />Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not. Also called retrospective study.<br />
  • CD117
    <h4 class="mg">CD117</h4><div class="mg">This is the infamous cKIT. A protein found on the surface of many different types of cells, including mast cells. It binds to a substance called stem cell factor (SCF), which causes certain types of blood cells to grow. <br /><br />CD117 is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase and a type of tumor marker. Also called c-KIT and stem cell factor receptor. When present on a mast cell with CD2 and CD25, it is an indication of mastocytosis.
  • CD2
    <h4 class="mg">CD2</h4><div class="mg">is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It is a protein molecule which helps cells to stick to one another to facilitate cell communication. <br /><br />If CD2 molecules are present (expressed) on a mast cell surface in conjunction with two other cell molecules called CD25 and CD117, it is an possible indication of mastocytosis.
  • CD20
    <h4 class="mg">CD20</h4><div class="mg">A protein found on B cells (a type of white blood cell).<br /><br />It may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain types of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Measuring the amount of CD20 on blood cells may help to diagnose cancer or plan cancer treatment. CD20 is a type of tumor marker. Also called CD20 antigen.
  • CD23
    <h4 class="mg">CD23</h4><div class="mg">CD23, also known as Fc epsilon RII, or FcεRII, is the "low-affinity" receptor for IgE, an antibody isotype involved in allergy and resistance to parasites, and is important in regulation of IgE
  • CD25
    <h4 class="mg">CD25</h4><div class="mg">CD25 is the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. It is a protein molecule which forms part of a cell receptor on some cells, like activated T cells or activated B cells. <br /><br />If CD25 molecules are present (expressed) on a mast cell surface in conjunction with two other cell molecules called CD2 and CD117, it is an possible indication of mastocytosis.
  • CD3
    <h4 class="mg">CD3</h4><div class="mg">A complex of receptors on a T-cell. A protein identifying a T-cell.
  • CD34
    <h4 class="mg">CD34</h4><div class="mg">A protein molecule which helps cells to stick to one another. It is a marker (like a "flag" on the cell) by which mast cells can be identified.
  • CD4-positive T lymphocyte
    <h4 class="mg">CD4-positive T lymphocyte</h4><div class="mg">A type of immune cell that stimulates killer T cells, macrophages, and B cells to make immune responses. <br /><br />A CD4-positive T lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called helper T cell.
  • CD45
    <h4 class="mg">CD45</h4><div class="mg">An enzyme and signaling molecule that regulates a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. It is a marker used by clinicians to tell a cell from another.<br />
  • Celiac Disease
    <h4 class="mg">Celiac Disease</h4><div class="mg">A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. <br /><br />Celiac disease damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. A person with celiac disease may become malnourished no matter how much food is consumed.
  • Cell Adhesion
    <h4 class="mg">Cell Adhesion</h4><div class="mg">The close adherence (bonding) to adjoining cell surfaces.
  • Cell Cycle
    <h4 class="mg">Cell Cycle</h4><div class="mg">The process a cell goes through each time it divides. The cell cycle consists of a series of steps during which the chromosomes and other cell material double to make two copies. The cell then divides into two daughter cells, each receiving one copy of the doubled material. The cell cycle is complete when each daughter cell is surrounded by its own outer membrane. Also called mitotic cycle.
  • Cell Membrane
    <h4 class="mg">Cell Membrane</h4><div class="mg">The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. (Source: Wikipedia)<br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_4.svg/511px-Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_4.svg.png" />
  • Cell-to-cell Signaling
    <h4 class="mg">Cell-to-cell Signaling</h4><div class="mg"> Part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis.
  • Cell-Touch Preparations
    <h4 class="mg">Cell-Touch Preparations</h4><div class="mg">Touch preparations or imprints enable the examination of the whole cell apart from the tissue aspect. The cells are obtained by touching a wet tissue with a glass slide. Cells adhere to the glass in roughly the same orientation as they exist on the surface of the lesion touched. Fixing them in place enables one to examine the cells for a rapid investigation without having to freeze and cut through a tissue block.
  • Central Nervous System
    <h4 class="mg">Central Nervous System</h4><div class="mg">The brain and spinal cord. Also called CNS.<br /><br /><img class="alignnone" alt="Drawing of brain anatomy showing the brain stem, pons, medulla, spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebrum, meninges, ventricles (fluid-filled spaces), and skull." src="http://m.cancer.gov/images/cdr/live/CDR680399-179.jpg" />
  • Chelating Agent
    <h4 class="mg">Chelating Agent</h4><div class="mg">A chemical compound that binds tightly to metal ions. <br /><br />In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic metals from the body. They are also being studied in the treatment of cancer.
  • Chemical Imbalance
    <h4 class="mg">Chemical Imbalance</h4><div class="mg">Too much or too little of any substance that helps the body work the way it should. <br /><br />A chemical imbalance may be caused by certain tumors and can cause changes in behavior or emotion.
  • Chemotaxis
    <h4 class="mg">Chemotaxis</h4><div class="mg">The attraction or repulsion of certain cells due to the environment they live in.<br /><br />Chemotaxis is the phenomenon whereby some cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (for example, glucose) by swimming towards the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons.
  • Chemotherapy
    <h4 class="mg">Chemotherapy</h4><div class="mg">Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo) is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic (which kill cells) antineoplastic (which prevent cell proliferation) drugs ("chemotherapeutic agents")
  • Chimeric
    <h4 class="mg">Chimeric</h4><div class="mg">Having parts of different origins. In medicine, refers to a person, organ, or tissue that contains cells with different genes than the rest of the person, organ, or tissue. <br /><br />This may happen because of a mutation (genetic change) that occurs during development, or as a result of a transplant of cells, organs, or tissues from another person or from a different species. In the laboratory, a chimeric protein can be made by combining two different genes. For example, a chimeric antibody is made by joining antibody genes from two different species, such as human and mouse.
  • Cholecalciferol
    <h4 class="mg">Cholecalciferol</h4><div class="mg">Also called vitamin D. A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. <br /><br />Cholecalciferol helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in fatty fish, egg yolks, and dairy products. Skin exposed to sunshine can also make cholecalciferol. Not enough cholecalciferol can cause a bone disease called rickets. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. <br />
  • Cholesterol
    <h4 class="mg">Cholesterol</h4><div class="mg">A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body.<br /><br /> Cholesterol is important for good health and is needed for making cell walls, tissues, hormones, vitamin D, and bile acid. Cholesterol also comes from eating foods taken from animals such as egg yolks, meat, and whole-milk dairy products. Too much cholesterol in the blood may build up in blood vessel walls, block blood flow to tissues and organs, and increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
  • Choline
    <h4 class="mg">Choline</h4><div class="mg">A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy.<br /><br /> Choline helps cells make membranes, make a neurotransmitter (a chemical that helps nerve cells communicate with other cells), and remove fat from the liver. It is found in whole milk, beef liver, eggs, soy foods, and peanuts. Choline is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough choline can cause diseases of the heart and blood vessels and damage to the liver. A form of choline is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and to reduce pain and fever. Choline is also being studied together with vitamin B12 in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
  • Chromogranin A
    <h4 class="mg">Chromogranin A</h4><div class="mg">Chromogranin A is a type of tumor marker. Also called CgA. <br /><br />It is a protein found inside neuroendocrine cells, which release chromogranin A and certain hormones into the blood. Chromogranin A may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, and other conditions. Measuring the amount of chromogranin A in the blood may help to diagnose cancer or other conditions or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back.
  • Chromosome
    <h4 class="mg">Chromosome</h4><div class="mg">Part of a cell that contains genetic information. Except for sperm and eggs, all human cells contain 46 chromosomes.
  • Chronic
    <h4 class="mg">Chronic</h4><div class="mg">A disease or condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    <h4 class="mg">Chronic Fatigue Syndrome</h4><div class="mg">A condition that lasts for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time. <br /><br />They may also have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities. Other symptoms include sore throat, fever, muscle weakness, headache, and joint pain. Also called CFS.
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    <h4 class="mg">Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia</h4><div class="mg">CML, also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. <br /><br />It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and their precursors is found.<br />
  • Circulation
    <h4 class="mg">Circulation</h4><div class="mg">In the body, the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels, and the flow of lymph through the lymph vessels.
  • Class Switching
    <h4 class="mg">Class Switching</h4><div class="mg">Immunoglobulin class switching is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of antibody from one class to another, for example, from an IgM to IgG.
  • Clinical History
    <h4 class="mg">Clinical History</h4><div class="mg">The medical history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
  • Clinical Practice Guideline
    <h4 class="mg">Clinical Practice Guideline</h4><div class="mg">A systematically developed statement, designed to assist practitioner and patient to decide on appropriate care for specific clinical circumstances. Not all practice guidelines are based on the best available evidence.
  • Clinical Study
    <h4 class="mg">Circulation</h4><div class="mg">A type of research study that tests how well new medical approaches work in people. These studies test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. Also called clinical trial.<br />
  • Clinical Trial
    <h4 class="mg">Clinical Trial</h4><div class="mg">A study in which an intervention (meaning, any therapy, surgical procedure, diagnostic or screening test or change in lifestyle or behaviour intended to have an effect on health) is being tested
  • Clinical Trial Phase
    <h4 class="mg">Clinical Trial Phase</h4><div class="mg">A part of the clinical research process that answers specific questions about whether treatments that are being studied work and are safe.<br /><br /><ul><li>Phase I trials test the best way to give a new treatment and the best dose.</li><li>Phase II trials test whether a new treatment has an effect on the disease.</li><li>Phase III trials compare the results of people taking a new treatment with the results of people taking the standard treatment.</li><li>Phase IV trials are done using thousands of people after a treatment has been approved and marketed, to check for side effects that were not seen in the phase III trial.</li></ul>
  • CM
    <h4 class="mg">CM</h4><div class="mg">Cutaneous Mastocytosis.
  • Co-expression
    <h4 class="mg">Co-Expression-shaped</h4><div class="mg">The simultaneous expression of two or more genes.
  • Cobalamine
    <h4 class="mg">Cobalamine</h4><div class="mg">Vitamin B12.
  • Cochrane Collaboration
    <h4 class="mg">Cochrane Collaboration</h4><div class="mg">An international organisation that prepares, maintains and disseminates systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare. Publication is electronic. Abstracts are available free of charge on the internet.
  • Codominant
    <h4 class="mg">Codominant</h4><div class="mg">In codominant inheritance, two different versions (alleles) of a gene can be expressed, and each version makes a slightly different protein. Both alleles influence the genetic trait or determine the characteristics of the genetic condition.<br /><br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="The ABO blood group is a major system for classifying blood types in humans. Blood type AB is inherited in a codominant pattern. In this example, a father with blood type A and a mother with blood type B have four children, each with a different blood type: A, AB, B, and O." src="http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/codominant.jpg" />
  • Coenzyme Q10
    <h4 class="mg">Coenzyme Q10</h4><div class="mg">A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. <br /><br />Coenzyme Q10 helps mitochondria (small structures in the cell) make energy. It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals).
  • Cohort
    <h4 class="mg">cohort</h4><div class="mg">A group of individuals who share a common trait, such as birth year. In medicine, a cohort is a group that is part of a clinical trial or study and is observed over a period of time
  • Cohort Study
    <h4 class="mg">Cohort Study</h4><div class="mg">An observational study that involves classifying people by their exposure to a study factor (for example, their environment or their lifestyle) of interest and following them over a period of time to see whether those exposed are more or less likely to develop disease than those not exposed.
  • Cohort Study
    <h4 class="mg">Cohort Study</h4><div class="mg">A research study that compares a particular outcome (such as lung cancer) in groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke compared with those who do not smoke).<br />
  • Colony-Stimulating Factor
    <h4 class="mg">Colony-Stimulating Factor</h4><div class="mg">A substance that stimulates the production of blood cells. <br /><br />Colony-stimulating factors include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and promegapoietin.<br />
  • Comorbidity
    <h4 class="mg">Comorbidity</h4><div class="mg">The condition of having two or more diseases at the same time.
  • Complementary Medicine
    <h4 class="mg">Complementary Medicine</h4><div class="mg">Any alternative or ‘eastern’ doctrine of healthcare. For example, naturopathy, homeopathy, reflexology, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Complete Blood Count
    <h4 class="mg">Complete Blood Count</h4><div class="mg">A complete blood count (CBC) is a very common blood test that doctors ask for. It counts the different types of cells in the blood and provides information regarding their size, shape and numbers.
  • Concentration
    <h4 class="mg">Concentration</h4><div class="mg">In science, the amount of a substance, such as a salt, that is in a certain amount of tissue or liquid, such as blood. A substance becomes more concentrated when less water is present. For example, the salt in urine may become more concentrated when a person doesn’t drink enough water.
  • Confidence Interval
    <h4 class="mg">Confidence Interval</h4><div class="mg">Even if studies are perfectly designed and carried out, the results may show variability because of the play of chance.A confidence interval covers the likely range of the true effect.For example, the result of a study may be that 40 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 30–50 per cent) of people are helped by a treatment. That means that we can be 95 per cent certain that the true effect is between 30 and 50 per cent.
  • Confounder
    <h4 class="mg">Confounder</h4><div class="mg">Something that could explain an association between a study factor and outcome.For example, workers in a factory may get more lung cancer than those working elsewhere, not because of their work but because they happen to be exposed to another known cause of lung cancer like cigarette smoking. In this example, smoking is the confounder and factory work may no longer be associated with lung cancer once the confounder has been taken into account."
  • Congenital
    <h4 class="mg">Concentration</h4><div class="mg"><br />A condition or trait present at birth. It may be the result of genetic or non-genetic factors.
  • Connective Tissue
    <h4 class="mg">Connective Tissue</h4><div class="mg"><br />Supporting tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs. Specialized connective tissue includes bone, cartilage, blood, and fat.
  • Constipation
    <h4 class="mg">Constipation</h4><div class="mg">A condition in which stool becomes hard, dry, and difficult to pass, and bowel movements don’t happen very often. Other symptoms may include painful bowel movements, and feeling bloated, uncomfortable, and sluggish.
  • Constitutional Symptoms
    <h4 class="mg">Constitutional Symptoms</h4><div class="mg">Referring to a group of symptoms that can affect many different systems of the body.<br /><br />Examples include weight loss, fevers, fatigue, and malaise. Other examples include chills, night sweats, and decreased appetite.Generally, they are very nonspecific, with a vast number of diseases and conditions as potential cause, thereby requiring further evaluation for any diagnosis.
  • Control Group
    <h4 class="mg">Control Group</h4><div class="mg">In a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared to the group that receives the new treatment, to see if the new treatment works.
  • Controlled Trial
    <h4 class="mg">Controlled Trial</h4><div class="mg">An intervention study in which a group given some intervention is compared with a control group.
  • Corticosteroid
    <h4 class="mg">Corticosteroid</h4><div class="mg">Any steroid hormone made in the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal gland). They are also made in the laboratory. Corticosteroids have many different effects in the body, and are used to treat many different conditions. They may be used as hormone replacement, to suppress the immune system, and to treat some side effects of cancer and its treatment. Corticosteroids are also used to treat certain lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias.
  • Corticotropin
    <h4 class="mg">Corticotropin</h4><div class="mg"><br />A hormone made in the pituitary gland. Corticotropin acts on the outer part of the adrenal gland to control its release of corticosteroid hormones. More corticotropin is made during times of stress. Also called ACTH and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
  • Cortisol
    <h4 class="mg">Cortisol</h4><div class="mg"><br />A hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps the body use glucose (a sugar), protein, and fats. Cortisol made in the laboratory is called hydrocortisone. It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers. Cortisol is a type of glucocorticoid hormone.
  • Cortisone
    <h4 class="mg">Cortisone</h4><div class="mg">A natural steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. It can also be made in the laboratory. Cortisone reduces swelling and can suppress immune responses.
  • Coumarin
    <h4 class="mg">Coumarin</h4><div class="mg">A substance used to make drugs that prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and treat certain heart conditions. <br /><br />Coumarin is taken from certain plants and can also be made in the laboratory. It is a type of anticoagulant.
  • Cutaneous
    <h4 class="mg">Cutaneous</h4><div class="mg">Of the skin, related to skin.
  • Cytokine
    <h4 class="mg">Cytokine</h4><div class="mg">A substance that is made by cells of the immune system. <br /><br />Some cytokines can boost the immune response and others can suppress it. Cytokines can also be made in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer.
  • Cytology
    <h4 class="mg">Cytology</h4><div class="mg">The study of cells using a microscope.
  • Cytopenia
    <h4 class="mg">Cytopenia</h4><div class="mg">The condition of having a decreased number of cellular elements in the blood.
  • Cytoplasm
    <h4 class="mg">Cytoplasm</h4><div class="mg">Cytoplasm is basically the substance that fills the cell. It is a jelly-like material that is eighty percent water and usually clear in color. It is more like a viscous (thick) gel than a watery substance, but it liquefies when shaken or stirred. Cytoplasm, which can also be referred to as cytosol, means cell substance.(Source:
  • Cytoreductive
    <h4 class="mg">Cytoreductive</h4><div class="mg">Reducing the number of cells.
  • Cytosis
    <h4 class="mg">Cytosis</h4><div class="mg">A condition in which there is more than the usual number of cells.
  • Cytotoxic
    <h4 class="mg">Cytotoxic</h4><div class="mg">Cell-killing.
  • Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte</h4><div class="mg">A type of immune cell that can kill certain cells, including foreign cells, cancer cells, and cells infected with a virus. <br /><br />Cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be separated from other blood cells, grown in the laboratory, and then given to a patient to kill cancer cells. A cytotoxic T lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called cytotoxic T cell and killer T cell.
  • Cytotoxin
    <h4 class="mg">Cytotoxin</h4><div class="mg">A substance that can kill cells.
  • DAO
    <h4 class="mg">DAO</h4><div class="mg">Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the main enzyme for the metabolism of ingested histamine. It has been proposed that DAO, may beresponsible for scavenging extracellular histamine after mediator release.
  • Darier's Sign
    <h4 class="mg">Darier's Sign</h4><div class="mg">A change observed after stroking the skin of a person with systemic mastocytosis or urticaria pigmentosa. <br /><br />In general, the skin becomes swollen, itchy and red. This is a result of compression of mast cells, which are hyperactive in these diseases. These mast cells release inflammatory granules which contain histamine. It is the histamine which is responsible for the response seen after rubbing the skin.<br /><br />Darier's sign is named after the French dermatologist Ferdinand-Jean Darier who first described it.
  • Degranulation
    <h4 class="mg">Degranulation</h4><div class="mg">When a mast cell releases its biochemical mediators (histamine, heparin, prostaglandin etc) as a result of being 'detonated' by an antigen.<a href="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/mastcelldegranulation.png"><img class="size-full wp-image-1269 aligncenter" alt="mastcelldegranulation" src="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/mastcelldegranulation.png" width="436" height="321" /></a>
  • Diamine Oxidase
    <h4 class="mg">Diamine Oxidase</h4><div class="mg">Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the main enzyme for the metabolism of ingested histamine. It has been proposed that DAO, may beresponsible for scavenging extracellular histamine after mediator release.
  • Diaphoresis
    <h4 class="mg">Diaphoresis</h4><div class="mg">Sweating, also called sudation.
  • Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis
    <h4 class="mg">Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis</h4><div class="mg"> severe, cutaneous disease, associated with symptoms related to mediators released by mast cells and with a risk of anaphylactic shock.
  • DNA
    <h4 class="mg">DNA</h4><div class="mg">Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses.
  • Double Blinding
    <h4 class="mg">Double Blinding</h4><div class="mg">Methods of preventing individuals, healthcare providers and those assessing outcome in a study from knowing whether the participant is in the experimental or control group. In double blinding, both the patient and the researcher is unaware whether the patient is receiving an active drug.
  • Dysmenorrhea
    <h4 class="mg">Dysmenorrhea</h4><div class="mg">Painful or difficult menstrual periods.
  • Dysplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Dysplasia</h4><div class="mg">Abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ.</div>
  • Dysplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Dysplasia </h4><div class="mg">An abnormality of development.<br /><br />This generally consists of an expansion of immature cells, with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. In dysplasia, cell maturation and differentiation are delayed,
  • Dyspnea
    <h4 class="mg">Dyspnea</h4><div class="mg">Shortness of breath.
  • Dysuria
    <h4 class="mg">Dysuria</h4><div class="mg">Painful urination.
  • Edema
    <h4 class="mg">Edema</h4><div class="mg">An abnormal accumulation of fluid in locations beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body. It is clinically known as swelling.
  • Empirical Evidence
    <h4 class="mg">Empirical Evidence</h4><div class="mg">Evidence provided by experiments or observational studies rather than theory, assumptions or recall of single experiences.
  • Endocrine Action
    <h4 class="mg">Endocrine Action</h4><div class="mg">A traditional part of the definition of hormones described them as being secreted into blood and affecting cells at distant sites. However, many of the hormones known to act in that manner have been shown to also affect neighboring cells or even have effects on the same cells that secreted the hormone. Nonetheless, it is useful to be able to describe how the signal is distributed for a particular hormonal pathway, and three actions are defined:<br /><ul><br /> <li>Endocrine action: the hormone is distributed in blood and binds to <em>distant target cells</em>.</li><br /></ul><br /> <br /><ul><br /> <li>Paracrine action: the hormone acts locally by diffusing from its source to <em>target cells in the neighborhood.</em></li><br /></ul><br /> <br /><ul><br /> <li>Autocrine action: the hormone acts on the<em> same cell</em> that produced it.</li><br /></ul><br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="" src="http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/crines.jpg" />
  • Endocrine System
    <h4 class="mg">Endocrine System</h4><div class="mg">The endocrine system broadcasts its hormonal messages to essentially all cells by secretion into blood and extracellular fluid. Like a radio broadcast, it requires a receiver to get the message - in the case of endocrine messages, cells must bear a receptor for the hormone being broadcast in order to respond.<br /><br /><img alt="" src="http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/anim_endo.gif" />
  • Endocrinology
    <h4 class="mg">Endocrinology</h4><div class="mg">Endocrinology is the study of chemical communication systems that provide the means to control a huge number of physiologic processes. Like other communication networks, endocrine systems contain transmitters, signals and receivers that are called, respectively, hormone producing cells, hormones and receptors.<br />
  • Endothelium
    <h4 class="mg">Endothelium</h4><div class="mg">The thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming a separation between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. <br /><br />The cells that form the endothelium are called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.
  • Eosinophil
    <h4 class="mg">Eosinophil</h4><div class="mg">Eosinophils are a type of white blood which act very much like mast cells. They also produce mediators like histamine when triggered by an allergen. They are mainly resident in the Gastro-Intestinal tract.
  • Epigastric
    <h4 class="mg">Epigastric</h4><div class="mg">The epigastrium (or epigastric region) is the upper central region of the abdomen. It is located between the costal margins and the subcostal plane.
  • Epiphenomenon
    <h4 class="mg">Epiphenomenon</h4><div class="mg"> In medicine, an epiphenomenon is a secondary symptom seemingly unrelated to the original disease or disorder. <br /><br />For example, having an increased risk of breast cancer concurrent with taking an antibiotic is an epiphenomenon. It is not the antibiotic that is causing the increased risk, but the increased inflammation associated with bacterial infection.
  • Eructation
    <h4 class="mg">Eructation</h4><div class="mg">Belching (also known as burping, ructus, or eructation) is the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. It is usually accompanied with a typical sound and, at times, an odor.
  • Erythema
    <h4 class="mg">Erythema</h4><div class="mg">Redness of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.
  • Erythropoiesis
    <h4 class="mg">Erythropoiesis</h4><div class="mg">An abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells.
  • Essential Amino Acid
    <h4 class="mg">Essential Amino Acid</h4><div class="mg">Our body can make 20 different amino acids, with which it creates proteins. Essential amino acids are amino acids that our body cannot make in quantities that are sufficient for our bodily needs. Therefore, we have to get these amino acids from the foods we eat.
  • Etiology
    <h4 class="mg">Etiology</h4><div class="mg">The cause or origin of a disease.
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
    <h4 class="mg">Evidence-Based Medicine</h4><div class="mg">An approach to making health decisions that uses the best available evidence from good studies in combination with information from the patient.
  • Exon
    <h4 class="mg">Exon</h4><div class="mg">The coding part of a gene. An exon is any nucleotide sequence encoded by a gene that remains present within the final mature RNA product of that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing. <br /><br />The term exon refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene and to the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. In RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are covalently joined to one another as part of generating the mature messenger RNA or noncoding RNA product of a gene.<br /><img alt="Gene structure.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Gene_structure.svg/480px-Gene_structure.svg.png" />
  • Expression
    <h4 class="mg">Expression</h4><div class="mg">A fancy word for 'making', creating. <br /><br />Gene expression means a gene being used to produce some sort of product, like a protein.
  • Extracellular
    <h4 class="mg">Extracellular</h4><div class="mg">Outside a cell. Extracellular fluid : fluid outside a cell.
  • Extracutaneous
    <h4 class="mg">Extracutaneous</h4><div class="mg">Occurring in sites other than the skin.
  • FcεRI
    <h4 class="mg">FcεRI</h4><div class="mg">The high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE).
  • Fibromyalgia
    <h4 class="mg">Fibromyalgia</h4><div class="mg">Fibromyalgia (FM or FMS) is characterised by chronic, widespread pain and a heightened and painful response to pressure.
  • Flow Cytometry
    <h4 class="mg">Flow Cytometry</h4><div class="mg">In cell biology, flow cytometry is a laser based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus.<br /><br /><a href="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/flowcytometry.jpg"><img class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-3141" alt="flowcytometry" src="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/flowcytometry-300x197.jpg" width="300" height="197" /></a>
  • Folate
    <h4 class="mg">Folate</h4><div class="mg">Vitamin B9, folic acid.
  • Folliculitis
    <h4 class="mg">Folliculitis</h4><div class="mg">Also known as "Hot Tub Rash", is the inflammation of one or more hair follicles. The condition may occur anywhere on the skin with the exception of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. They may appear as red dots that come to white tips on the chest, back and arms.
  • Four Blind Men And An Elephant
    <h4 class="mg">Four Blind Men And An Elephant</h4><div class="mg"><a href="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/blindmenandelephant.jpg"><img src="http://meandmymastcells.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/blindmenandelephant-300x214.jpg" alt="blind men and an elephant" width="300" height="214" class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-1798" /></a>"
  • Gastroenterology
    <h4 class="mg">Gastroenterology</h4><div class="mg">A branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.<br /><br />This medical speciality focuses on diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, and along the alimentary canal.
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
    <h4 class="mg">Gastrointestinal Tract</h4><div class="mg">The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine, sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus.
  • Gene Expression
    <h4 class="mg">Gene Expression</h4><div class="mg">Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the creation within a cell of a functional product. These products are often proteins.<br /><br />It's like saying that the expression of a pie recipe (equivalent to a gene) produces a pecan pie (a good looking, edible, yummy - aka functional - pie)
  • Gene Expression Profile
    <h4 class="mg">Gene Expression Profile</h4><div class="mg">Gene Expression Profiling compares the behavior of  genes in healthy people with the behaviour of the same genes in ill people. <br /><br />By looking at the differences in behavior, clinicians can then identify which genes in ill people are not working normally (mutated).Expression profiling is a logical next step after sequencing a genome: the sequence tells us what the cell could possibly do, while the expression profile tells us what it is actually doing at a point in time.
  • Granulocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Granulocyte</h4><div class="mg">Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm (inside the cell membrane). Those granules contain chemicals which may be toxic to foreign substances when released in their presence, but also toxic to the tissues as well. There are 3 types of granulocytes : <br /><br />1 Neutrophils<br />2 Eosinophils<br />3 Basophils
  • Granuloma
    <h4 class="mg">Granuloma</h4><div class="mg">Medical term for a special type of inflammation that can occur in a wide variety of diseases. The word refers to a collection of tiny immune cells known as macrophages.
  • Half-life
    Half-life (t½) is the time required for a quantity of a substance to fall to half its value as measured at the beginning of the time period. So if a drug has a half-life of, say, 2 days, that means that 2 days after ingesting the drug, only half of the drug remains in the body. After 4 days, only one-quarter (half of the one half remaining after 2 days) of the drug remains, and so on.
  • Harm
    <h4 class="mg">Harm</h4><div class="mg">The extent to which one’s lifespan is shortened or one’s quality of life deteriorates.
  • Hematologist
    <h4 class="mg">Hematologist</h4><div class="mg">A doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders. <br /><br />Hematology is the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, and the mechanism of coagulation.
  • Hematopoiesis
    <h4 class="mg">Hematopoiesis</h4><div class="mg">Blood production.
  • hemorrhoids
    <h4 class="mg">Hemorrhoids</h4><div class="mg">Commonly known as piles. The symptoms of pathological hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding while external hemorrhoids may produce few symptoms or if thrombosed significant pain and swelling in the area of the anus.
  • Heterogeneity
    <h4 class="mg">Heterogeneity</h4><div class="mg">Disparate, of different nature, which varies much, contrarian.<br />
  • Heterogeneous
    <h4 class="mg">Heterogenous</h4><div class="mg">Composed of parts of different kinds; having widely dissimilar elements or constituents; not homogeneous. <br /><br />A heterogenous disease is a disease with many different presentations.
  • Histamine
    <h4 class="mg">Histamine</h4><div class="mg">Histamine is a chemical which occurs naturally in certain foods. <br /><br />This is also one of the chemicals that is released in the body as part of an allergic reaction, causing the typical itching, sneezing, wheezing and swelling allergy symptoms.
  • Histamine Intolerance
    <h4 class="mg">Histamine Intolerance</h4><div class="mg">The results from an imbalance of accumulated histamine and the capacity for the body to degrade and eliminate histamine.
  • Histology
    <h4 class="mg">Histology</h4><div class="mg">The study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues. It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues by sectioning and staining, followed by examination under a light microscope or electron microscope. (Source: Wikipedia)<br />
  • Histopathology
    <h4 class="mg">Histopathology</h4><div class="mg">Refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist.<br /><br />In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue fragments.
  • Hormone
    <h4 class="mg">Hormone</h4><div class="mg">Hormones are chemical messengers secreted into blood or extracellular fluid by one cell that affect the functioning of other cells.<br /><br />Most hormones circulate in blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells. However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone.<br /><br />Like all molecules, hormones are synthesized, exist in a biologically active state for a time, and then degrade or are destroyed.
  • Hymenoptera
    <h4 class="mg">Hymenoptera</h4><div class="mg">Insect venom.
  • Hyperplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Hyperplasia</h4><div class="mg">Hyperplasia  or hypergenesis, means increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed up with benign neoplasia / benign tumor.
  • Hypersensitivity
    <h4 class="mg">Hypersensitivity</h4><div class="mg">Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. These reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal.
  • Hypervolemia
    <h4 class="mg">Hypervolemia</h4><div class="mg">Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood.
  • Hypocellular
    <h4 class="mg">Hypocellular</h4><div class="mg">Containing less than the normal number of cells.
  • Hypoplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Hypoplasia</h4><div class="mg">Hypoplasia  is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ. <br /><br />Although the term is not always used precisely, it properly refers to an inadequate or below-normal number of cells.Hypoplasia is similar to aplasia, but less severe. It is technically not the opposite of hyperplasia (too many cells). Hypoplasia is a congenital condition, while hyperplasia generally refers to excessive cell growth later in life. (Atrophy, the wasting away of already existing cells, is technically the direct opposite of both hyperplasia and hypertrophy.)
  • Hypotension
    <h4 class="mg">Hypotension</h4><div class="mg">Low blood pressure.
  • Hypovolemia
    <h4 class="mg">Hypovolemia</h4><div class="mg">A state of decreased blood volume.
  • Idiopathic
    <h4 class="mg">Idiopathic</h4><div class="mg">The word “idiopathic” means of unknown cause. It is used to designate a disease or condition that originated "without an apparent extrinsic cause."
  • IgE
    <h4 class="mg">IgE</h4><div class="mg">Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are antibodies produced by the immune system. <br /><br />Your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E. These antibodies land on to mast cell surfaces and when the allergen binds with surface IgE, the mast cell degranulates, causing inflammation and all the symptoms related to mastocytosis. <br /><br />Each type of IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to cat dander (they only have the IgE antibodies specific to cat dander); while others have allergic reactions to multiple allergens because they have many more types of IgE antibodies.<br />
  • Imatinib
    <h4 class="mg">Imatinib</h4><div class="mg">Imatinib (INN), marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (U.S.) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America), is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of multiple cancers.
  • Immune System
    <h4 class="mg">Immune System</h4><div class="mg">The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. <br /><br />To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue.
  • Immunohistochemical Detection
    <h4 class="mg">Immunohistochemical Detection</h4><div class="mg">The process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. from "immuno," in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue.
  • Immunohistochemistry
    <h4 class="mg">Immunohistochemistry</h4><div class="mg">Immunohistochemistry uses antibodies to detect and visualise antigens in cells and tissues. Antibodies can be raised against almost any type of antigen(protein, carbohydrate, lipid...). Antibodies bind to antigen in a specific manner. Bound antibodies can be detected in several ways.</div>
  • Immunophenotyping
    <h4 class="mg">Immunophenotyping</h4><div class="mg">A technique used to study the protein expressed by cells.<br /><br />An example of information provided through Immunophenotyping: "The flow cytometric immunophenotyping report indicated the malignant cells were positive for CD19, CD10, dimCD20, CD45, HLA-DR, and  lambda immunoglobulin light chain. There was no coexpression of CD5 or CD23 by the monoclonal B-cell population.
  • Incidence
    <h4 class="mg">Incidence</h4><div class="mg">The number of new cases of a disease in a given period of time as a proportion of the population.
  • Indolent
    <h4 class="mg">Indolent</h4><div class="mg">When applied to a medical situation, indolent can mean a problem that causes no pain, or is slow growing and not immediately problematic.<br /><br />Your doctor may tell you that a tumor is indolent. That means that it will grow slowly, and you have some time to make decisions about how you will treat it. Likewise, an ulcer may be considered indolent, meaning it is present, but not causing pain.<br />
  • Infiltrate
    <h4 class="mg">Infiltrate</h4><div class="mg">Infiltration is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells) of substances not normal to it or in amounts in excess of the normal. The material collected in those tissues or cells is called infiltrate.
  • Inflammation
    <h4 class="mg">Inflammation</h4><div class="mg">Inflammation is a protective attempt by the body to remove the causes of injury and to initiate the healing process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection.<br /><br />The classical signs of acute inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
  • Interstitial
    <h4 class="mg">Interstitial</h4><div class="mg">Pertaining to the small, narrow spaces between tissues or cells.
  • Intervention
    <h4 class="mg">Intervention</h4><div class="mg">Any therapy, surgical procedure, diagnostic or screening test or change in lifestyle or behaviour intended to have an effect on health.
  • Intervention Study
    <h4 class="mg">Intervention Study</h4><div class="mg">An experimental study in which people are given an intervention to assess its effects. Examples are clinical trials, controlled trials and randomised controlled trials.
  • Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction
    <h4 class="mg">Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction</h4><div class="mg">A clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through. <br /><br />It is characterised by the signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction without any lesion in the intestinal lumen. Clinical features can include abdominal pain, nausea, severe distension, vomiting, dysphagia, diarrhoea and constipation, depending upon the part of the gastrointestinal tract involved.
  • Intracellular
    <h4 class="mg">Intracellular</h4><div class="mg">Inside a cell. Intracellular fluid : fluid inside a cell.
  • ISM
    <h4 class="mg">ISM</h4><div class="mg">Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis.
  • IVA
    <h4 class="mg">IVA</h4><div class="mg">Insect Venom Anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis caused by an insect sting.
  • Juxtamembrane
    <h4 class="mg">Juxtamembrane</h4><div class="mg">Adjacent to a membrane on one side of it.<br /><img alt="" src="http://opm.phar.umich.edu/images/png/2kzq.png" />
  • Kinase
    <h4 class="mg">Kinase</h4><div class="mg">A kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific substrates, a process referred to as phosphorylation.
  • Lead Time Bias
    <h4 class="mg">Lead Time Bias</h4><div class="mg">A bias that occurs in the assessment of screening. As people who have been screened have their disease detected earlier, they live longer from the time of diagnosis, even if screening has no beneficial effects. This means that they have been given more years of disease rather than more years of life.
  • Leukemia
    <h4 class="mg">Leukemia</h4><div class="mg">Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts". Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of cancerous diseases.
  • Locus
    <h4 class="mg">Locus</h4><div class="mg">The position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. <br /><br />The chromosome is a long row of individual instructions. A locus is a specific position of an instruction in that long row. Think of it like the loc-ation (locus) of an instruction in a row of instructions.
  • Lymph Node
    <h4 class="mg">Lymph Node</h4><div class="mg">A lymph node or lymph gland is an oval-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels. <br /><br />Lymph nodes are garrisons immunity cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system.
  • Lymphocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Lymphocyte</h4><div class="mg">White blood cell (T-cell, B-cell, Natural Killer cell).
  • Lymphocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Lymphocyte</h4><div class="mg">White blood cells
  • Lymphoid
    <h4 class="mg">Lymphoid</h4><div class="mg">Of or relating to lymph or the lymphatic tissue where lymphocytes are formed.<br /><br />A thin, yellowish fluid, called lymph fluid, travels throughout the body in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system helps control fluids in the body.<br /><br />
  • Lymphoma
    <h4 class="mg">Lymphoma</h4><div class="mg">A type of blood cancer that occurs when B or T lymphocytes (the white blood cells that form a part of the immune system and help protect the body from infection and disease),  divide faster than normal cells or live longer than they are supposed to. Lymphoma may develop in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood or other organs and eventually they form a tumor.
  • M:E Ratio
    <h4 class="mg">M:E Ratio</h4><div class="mg">The ratio of white blood cells to red blood cells (myeloid to erythroid) precursors in bone marrow;<br /><br />Normally it varies from 2:1 to 4:1;<br /><ul><br /> <li>an increased ratio is found in infections, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or erythroid hypoplasia;</li><br /> <li>a decreased ratio may mean a depression of leukopoiesis or normoblastic hyperplasia depending on the overall cellularity of the bone marrow.</li><br /></ul><br /></div>
  • Macrocytic
    <h4 class="mg">Macrocytic</h4><div class="mg">containing  abnormaly large erythrocytes (red blood cells).
  • Marrow
    <h4 class="mg">Marrow</h4><div class="mg">Marrow (as in Bone Marrow) The flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. <br /><br />In humans, red blood cells are produced in the heads of long bones, in a process known as hematopoesis
  • Mast Cell Stabiliser
    <h4 class="mg">Mast Cell Stabiliser</h4><div class="mg">Drug or supplement which controls the degranulation of the mast cells, preventing the release of histamine and related mediators. Examples: Cromoglicic acid (Gastrocom), Ketotifen, Methyl Xantines, Quercetin.
  • MC
    <h4 class="mg">MC</h4><div class="mg">Mast Cells.
  • Medline
    <h4 class="mg">Medline</h4><div class="mg">An electronic database of the titles and abstracts of many medical journals. A version called PubMed is available free of charge on the internet.
  • Megakaryocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Megakaryocyte</h4><div class="mg">The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting.
  • Megaloblast
    <h4 class="mg">Megaloblast</h4><div class="mg">An unusually large red blood cell (erythroblast) that can be associated with Vitamin B12 deficiency (as caused by pernicious anemia or dietary insufficiency) and/or folic acid deficiency.
  • Membrane Permeability
    <h4 class="mg">Membrane Permeability</h4><div class="mg">A quality of a cell’s plasma membrane that allows substances to pass in and out of it, so that the cell can expel waste products and ship out the chemicals it assembles for the body. At the same time, the nutrients that the cell needs can pass through the membrane to the inside. <br /><br />Cell membranes have selective permeability, meaning that they will allow certain substances to pass while forming a barrier against others.
  • Microcytes
    <h4 class="mg">Microcytes</h4><div class="mg">Abnormally small red blood cells.
  • Microcytic
    <h4 class="mg">Microcytic</h4><div class="mg">Containing abnormally small erythrocytes (red blood cells).
  • Microcytosis
    <h4 class="mg">Microcytosis</h4><div class="mg">Blood disorder characterized by the presence of microcytes (abnormally small red blood cells) inthe blood; often associated with anemia.
  • Microscopic Field Of View
    <h4 class="mg">Microscopic Field Of View</h4><div class="mg">Sometimes abbreviated "FOV", it is the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking into a microscope.  <br /><br />As the power gets greater, the field of view gets smaller.  You can measure this by placing a clear metric ruler on the stage and counting the millimeters from one side to the other.  Typically you will see about 4.5mm at 40X, 1.8mm at 100X, 0.45mm at 400X and 0.18mm at 1000X.<br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="" src="http://designrfix.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ae-tutorials-2010-sept-32.jpg" />
  • Mitochondria
    <h4 class="mg">Mitochondria</h4><div class="mg">A mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is an organelle found within the cell-membrane in most eukaryotic cells. <br /><br />Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as a source of chemical energy.
  • Molecular Study
    <h4 class="mg">Molecular Study</h4><div class="mg">Study of the world on an extremely small level. Studying molecules by using microscopes.
  • Monoclonal
    <h4 class="mg">Monoclonal</h4><div class="mg">Monoclonal cells are defined as a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication. Thus they can be said to form a single "clone".
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
    <h4 class="mg">Monoclonal Antibodies</h4><div class="mg">Antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
  • Morphology
    <h4 class="mg">Morphology</h4><div class="mg">Cell morphology is the shape, structure, form, and size of cells.
  • Multi-Focal
    <h4 class="mg">Multi-Focal</h4><div class="mg">Arising from or occurring in more than one focus or location.
  • Multifocal
    <h4 class="mg">Multifocal</h4><div class="mg">A focus is a location. Multifocal "means in more than one location". <br /><br />Arising from or occurring in more than one focus or location
  • Multisystem
    <h4 class="mg">Multisystem</h4><div class="mg">Relating to, consisting of, or involving more than one bodily system.
  • Mutation
    <h4 class="mg">Mutation</h4><div class="mg"> Damage in the cell's DNA resulting in an abnormality or defect in molecules produced by the cell. A mutation can lead to a cell losing function or producing cancer.
  • Myeloid
    <h4 class="mg">Myeloid</h4><div class="mg">Young white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Usually refers to blood cells born in the bone marrow.
  • Myeloid Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Myeloid Cell</h4><div class="mg">Any blood cell that is not a lymphocyte (red blood cell, platelets)
  • Myeloproliferative
    <h4 class="mg">Myeloproliferative</h4><div class="mg">from myelo : bone marrow and proliferative: which continuously creates. So, a myeloproliferative disease is a disease of the bone marrow in which too many cells are produced. The consequences of the excess cells is what causes the disease.
  • n =
    <h4 class="mg">n =</h4><div class="mg">Number of patients.
  • Neoplasia
    <h4 class="mg">Neoplasia</h4><div class="mg">The abnormal growth or division (proliferation) of cells.
  • Neoplasm
    <h4 class="mg">Neoplasm</h4><div class="mg">An abnormal mass of tissue as a result of neoplasia.<br /><br />Neoplasia is the abnormal growth or division of cells.
  • Nervous System
    <h4 class="mg">Nervous System</h4><div class="mg">The nervous system exerts point-to-point control through nerves, similar to sending messages by conventional telephone. Nervous control is electrical in nature and fast.<br /><br /><img alt="" src="http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/anim_nerve.gif" />
  • Neurology
    <h4 class="mg">Neurology</h4)A medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
  • Neuropathy
    <h4 class="mg">Neuropathy</h4><div class="mg">Neuropathy usually refers to peripheral neuropathy, which denotes damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Normocellular
    <h4 class="mg">Normocellular</h4><div class="mg">Normal amounts and types of cells.
  • Normocytic
    <h4 class="mg">Normocytic</h4><div class="mg">Containing normal size erythrocytes (red blood cells).
  • Number Needed To Treat
    <h4 class="mg">Number Needed To Treat</h4><div class="mg">The number of people who must be treated to result in benefit in one person. It is the inverse of absolute risk reduction.
  • Observational Study
    <h4 class="mg">Observational Study</h4><div class="mg">Anon-experimental study that examines the association between a study factor (for example, exposure or lifestyle) and outcome. Examples are cohort and case.
  • Oncogene
    <h4 class="mg">Oncogene</h4><div class="mg">Any gene that is a causative factor in the initiation of cancerous growth.<br />
  • Oncogenic
    <h4 class="mg">Oncogenic</h4><div class="mg">Which generates tumours.
  • Oncology
    <h4 class="mg">Oncology</h4><div class="mg">Oncology (from the Ancient Greek onkos, meaning bulk, mass, or tumor, and the suffix -logy, meaning "study of") is a branch of medicine that deals with cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
  • Oncoprotein
    <h4 class="mg">Oncoprotein</h4><div class="mg">A protein expressed by an oncogene (a gene that has the potential to cause cancer).
  • Orthodox Medecine
    <h4 class="mg">Orthodox Medecine </h4><div class="mg">Conventional or ‘western’ doctrine of healthcare.
  • Osteopenia
    <h4 class="mg">Osteopenia</h4><div class="mg">Osteopenia refers to bone mineral density (BMD) that is lower than normal peak BMD but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. <br /><br />Bone mineral density is a measurement of the level of minerals in the bones, which shows how dense and strong they are. If your BMD is low compared to normal peak BMD, you are said to have osteopenia.
  • Osteoporosis
    <h4 class="mg">Osteoporosis</h4><div class="mg">Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered.
  • Outcome
    <h4 class="mg">Outcome</h4><div class="mg">Any identified change in health status after a disease, an exposure to something or a preventive or therapeutic intervention.<br /><br />By comparing the outcomes of two experimental groups, one that receives the intervention and one that does not, the effect of an intervention can be assessed. Most often, the frequency of bad outcomes (that is, poor health or death) is measured.
  • p =
    <h4 class="mg">p =</h4><div class="mg">p-value is the chance that what you believe you are observing as fact is just observed by pure chance. So if you obtain: <br /><br />a p-value of 0.001 it means that there is one tenth of a percent chance that the observed evidence is due to chance<br />a p-value of 0.01, it means that there is a 1% chance that the observed evidence is due to chance. <br />a p-value of 0.1, it means that there is 10% chance.
  • Pathogen
    <h4 class="mg">Pathogen</h4><div class="mg">A pathogen or infectious agent is a microorganism—in the widest sense, such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus—that causes disease in its host. The host may be an animal, a plant, or even another microorganism.
  • Pathogenesis
    <h4 class="mg">Pathogenesis</h4><div class="mg">The pathogenesis of a disease is the mechanism that causes the disease. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease.
  • Pathogonomic
    <h4 class="mg">Pathogonomic</h4><div class="mg">Characteristic or diagnostic of a specific disease: a pathognomonic sign of pneumonia.
  • Pathology
    <h4 class="mg">Pathology</h4><div class="mg">The precise study and diagnosis of disease.
  • Pathophysiology
    <h4 class="mg">Pathophysiology</h4><div class="mg">The functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury.
  • Performance Status
    <h4 class="mg">Performance Status</h4><div class="mg">In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify a patients' general well-being and activities of daily life.
  • Perfusion
    <h4 class="mg">Perfusion</h4><div class="mg">The injection of fluid into a blood vessel in order to reach an organ or tissues, usually to supply nutrients and oxygen.
  • Peripheral Blood
    <h4 class="mg">Peripheral Blood</h4><div class="mg">All blood which is in circulation. Peripheral blood cells are the cellular components of blood, consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are found within the circulating pool of blood and not sequestered (stored) within the lymphatic system, spleen, liver, or bone marrow.
  • Placebo
    <h4 class="mg">Placebo</h4><div class="mg">An inert treatment (or procedure); one that is not expected to have any pharmacological effect. For example, a sugar pill instead of an active drug.
  • Placebo Effect
    <h4 class="mg">Placebo Effect</h4><div class="mg">A change caused by an expectation that the treatment or procedure will have an effect rather than directly by the treatment or procedure itself. The placebo effect is usually but not necessarily beneficial.
  • Plasma
    <h4 class="mg">Plasma</h4><div class="mg">The fluid which flows through our circulatory system along with our blood cells, also called intravascular fluid because it’s inside our vascular system.
  • Platelets
    <h4 class="mg">Platelets</h4><div class="mg">Platelets are the cells that circulate within our blood and bind together when they recognize damaged blood vessels.<br /><br />When you get a cut, for example, the platelets bind to the site of the damaged vessel, thereby causing a blood clot. There’s an evolutionary reason why they’re there. It’s to stop us from bleeding.
  • Point Mutation
    <h4 class="mg">Point Mutation</h4><div class="mg">A point mutation, or single base substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. The term point mutation also includes insertions or deletions of a single base pair.
  • Pollakiuria
    <h4 class="mg">Pollakiuria</h4><div class="mg">Extraordinary daytime urinary frequency.
  • Polymorbidity
    <h4 class="mg">Polymorbidity</h4><div class="mg">(from latin: multiple disease) refers to the simultaneous occurrence of several diseases in a single person.
  • Practitioner
    <h4 class="mg">Practitioner</h4><div class="mg">Anyone who offers any form of healthcare in a professional capacity. For example, doctors, nurses, homeopaths, naturopaths, dentists, nutritionists, pharmacists, chiropractors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, surgeons, veterinarians.
  • Pre Test Probability
    <h4 class="mg">Pre Test Probability</h4><div class="mg">The probability of having a disease before having a test (see Post-test probability).
  • Pre-Test Probability
    <h4 class="mg">Pre-Test Probability</h4><div class="mg">The probability of having a disease before having a test (see Post-test probability).
  • Precursor
    <h4 class="mg">Precursor</h4><div class="mg">In biochemistry, the term "precursor" is used to refer to a chemical compound preceding another in a metabolic pathway.
  • Precursor Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Precursor Cell</h4><div class="mg">A precursor cell, also called a blast cell or simply blast, is a type of partially differentiated, usually unipotent cell that has lost most or all of the stem cell multipotency.<br /><br />Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. <br /><br />Multipotency describes cells which have the potential to differentiate into multiple, but limited cell types.<br /><br />Usually, precursor cells are cells capable of differentiating into one or two closely related final forms. Sometimes precursor cell is used as an alternative term for multipotent stem cells.
  • Prevalence
    <h4 class="mg">Prevalence</h4><div class="mg">The total number of people who have the disease or condition at a particular time expressed as a proportion of the population.<br />
  • Prognosis
    <h4 class="mg">Prognosis</h4><div class="mg">Prognosis (From Greek , literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term for predicting the likely outcome of one's current standing.  <br /><br />A complete prognosis includes the expected duration, the function, and a description of the course of the disease, such as progressive decline, intermittent crisis, or sudden, unpredictable crisis.
  • Proto-Oncogene
    <h4 class="mg">Proto-Oncogene</h4><div class="mg">A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can become an oncogene (a gene that has the potential to cause cancer) due to mutations or increased expression. Proto-oncogenes code for (produce) proteins that help to regulate cell growth and differentiation.
  • Pruritus
    <h4 class="mg">Pruritus</h4><div class="mg">Stimulation of nerve endings in the skin, usually incited by histamine, that evokes a desire to scratch.<br /><br />Pathological itching with skin changes usually signals dermatologic disease.<br />Generalized itching without skin changes can occur in systemic diseases.
  • Randomisation
    <h4 class="mg">Randomisation</h4><div class="mg">Allocation based on chance to either an intervention group or a control group of a study. This ensures that the outcomes in the groups are expected to be the same if the intervention has no effect.
  • Randomised Controlled Trial
    <h4 class="mg">Randomised Controlled Trial</h4><div class="mg">A trial in which people are allocated randomly to either an intervention group (the set of patients who sill be treated) or a control group (the set of patients who will either not be treated (merely observed) or given a placebo.)
  • RAST
    <h4 class="mg">RAST</h4><div class="mg">A RAST test (short for radioallergosorbent test) is a blood test used to determine to what substances a person is allergic. This is different from a skin allergy test, which determines allergy by the reaction of a person's skin to different substances.
  • Recall Bias
    <h4 class="mg">Recall Bias</h4><div class="mg">Differences in the completeness or accuracy of recall of prior events, for example, mothers whose children died of leukaemia may be more likely to remember exposure of the unborn infant to X-rays than a control group of mothers.
  • Refractory
    <h4 class="mg">Refractory</h4><div class="mg">Resistant to treatment, for example "a refractory case of acne".
  • Regression To The Mean
    <h4 class="mg">Regression To The Mean</h4><div class="mg">Many illnesses get better on their own and many abnormal findings become more normal on re-measurement in the absence of any intervention.
  • Relative Risk
    <h4 class="mg">Relative Risk</h4><div class="mg">The rate (risk) of poor outcomes in the intervention group divided by the rate of poor outcomes in the control group.<br /><br />For example, if the rate of poor outcomes is 20 per cent in the intervention group and 30 per cent in the control group, the relative risk is 0.67 (20 per cent divided by 30 per cent).The relative risk is 1 when the intervention has no effect, below 1 when it does good and above 1 when it does harm.
  • Relative Risk Reduction
    <h4 class="mg">Relative Risk Reduction</h4><div class="mg">The extent to which the risk of a poor outcome is reduced by an intervention.<br /><br />For example, if the rate of poor outcomes is 20 per cent in the intervention group and 30 per cent in the control group, the relative risk is 0.67 (20 per cent divided by 30 per cent).
  • Reticulocyte
    <h4 class="mg">Reticulocyte</h4><div class="mg">An immature red blood cell containing a network of granules or filaments.<br />
  • Reticulocytosis
    <h4 class="mg">Reticulocytosis</h4><div class="mg">An increase in the number of reticulocytes in the blood.
  • Retrovirus
    <h4 class="mg">Retrovirus</h4><div class="mg">Any of a family of single-stranded RNA viruses having a helical envelope and containing an enzyme (called reverse-transferase) that allows for a reversal of genetic transcription (transcribing from RNA to DNA rather than the usual DNA to RNA - therefore called reverse transcription).<br /><br />The DNA which has thus been transcribed is then incorporated into the host cell's DNA strand, The cell then treats the incorporated viral DNA as part of its own instructions which it follows blindly, making the proteins required to assemble new copies of the virus. And so the host cell unwittingly generates new copies of the virus.The family includes the aids virus and certain oncogene-carrying viruses implicated in various cancers.See an animation of retrovirus reverse transcription here
  • Rheumatology
    <h4 class="mg">Rheumatology</h4><div class="mg">Rheumatology deals mainly with clinical problems involving joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation, and genetic disorders affecting the material between the cells of the body.<br /><br />Many of these diseases are now known to be disorders of the immune system, and rheumatology is increasingly the study of immunology.<br /><br />Clinicians who specialize in rheumatology are called Rheumatologists.
  • Risk
    <h4 class="mg">Risk</h4><div class="mg">The probability that an event will occur, for example, that an individual will die or become ill within a stated period of time.
  • Selection Bias
    <h4 class="mg">Selection Bias</h4><div class="mg">Error caused by systematic differences in characteristics between those who are selected and followed up in the intervention and control groups or the groups being compared in an observational study.
  • Sensitivity
    <h4 class="mg">Sensitivity</h4><div class="mg">The probability of a positive test in people who have the disease of interest.
  • Serum
    <h4 class="mg">Serum</h4><div class="mg">In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor;
  • SM
    <h4 class="mg">SM</h4><div class="mg">Systemic Mastocytosis
  • Somatic
    <h4 class="mg">Somatic</h4><div class="mg">The term somatic means 'of the body' - relating to the body. In medicine, somatic illness is bodily, not mental illness.<br /><br />The term is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the sex cells like the egg or sperm.
  • Specificity
    <h4 class="mg">Specificity</h4><div class="mg">The probability of a negative test in people who don’t have the disease of interest.
  • Spindle Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Spindle Cell</h4><div class="mg">A spindle-shaped cell, which is characteristic of certain tumors.
  • Spindle-shaped
    <h4 class="mg">Spindle-shaped</h4><div class="mg">Having a shape like a spindle, that is being wide in the middle then tapering at both ends.
  • Spleen
    <h4 class="mg">Spleen</h4><div class="mg">The spleen  is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals. Similar in structure to a large lymph node, it acts primarily as a blood filter. Thus, life is possible after the spleen is removed. The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock and also recycles iron.
  • Splenomegaly
    <h4 class="mg">Splenomegaly</h4><div class="mg">An enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen.
  • Stomatitis
    <h4 class="mg">Stomatitis</h4><div class="mg">An inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and roof or floor of the mouth.
  • Syndrome
    <h4 class="mg">Syndrome</h4><div class="mg">Any combination of signs and symptoms that are indicative of a particular disease or disorder<br /><br />A symptom, characteristic, or set of symptoms or characteristics indicating the existence of a condition, problem, etc.
  • Systematic Review
    <h4 class="mg">Systematic Review</h4><div class="mg">A review in which all relevant studies are identified and those of adequate quality selected. Results from adequate studies are usually pooled (meta-analysed) to give the best single estimate of effect.
  • Systemic
    <h4 class="mg">Systemic</h4><div class="mg">Systemic refers to something that is spread throughout, system-wide, affecting a group or system such as a body, economy, market or society as a whole.
  • Tachycardia
    <h4 class="mg">Tachycardia</h4><div class="mg">A marked increase in heart rate.
  • Tachyphylaxis
    <h4 class="mg">Tachyphylaxis</h4><div class="mg">In pharmacology, a phenomenon in which the repeated administration of some drugs results in a rapidly appearing and marked decrease in the drug's effectiveness.
  • Target Cell
    <h4 class="mg">Taget Cell</h4><div class="mg">A particular cell is a target cell for a hormone if it contains functional receptors for that hormone, and cells which do not have such a receptor cannot be influenced directly by that hormone. <br /><br />Reception of a radio broadcast provides a good analogy. Everyone within range of a transmitter for National Public Radio is exposed to that signal. However, in order to be a National Public Radio target and thus influenced directly by their broadcasts, you have to have a receiver tuned to that frequency.<br /><br /><img class="aligncenter" alt="" src="http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/targets.gif" />
  • Telangiectasia
    <h4 class="mg">Telangiectasia</h4><div class="mg">Dilation of previously existing small or terminal blood vessels. Small dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes.
  • Thalassemia
    <h4 class="mg">Thalassemia</h4><div class="mg"> A blood disease which is caused by the weakening and destruction of red blood cells.<br /><br />Thalassemia is caused by variant or missing genes that affect how the body makes hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. People with thalassemia make less hemoglobin and fewer circulating red blood cells than normal, which results in mild or severe anemia.<br /><br />Thalassemia can cause significant complications, including iron overload, bone deformities and cardiovascular illness.
  • Tinnitus
    <h4 class="mg">Tinnitus</h4><div class="mg">The perception of sound within the human ear (ringing of the ears) when no actual sound is present.<br /><br />Can result from a wide range of underlying causes: neurological damage (multiple sclerosis), ear infections, oxidative stress, foreign objects in the ear, nasal allergies that prevent (or induce) fluid drain, wax build-up, and exposure to loud sounds. Withdrawal from benzodiazepines may cause tinnitus as well.
  • Toxin
    <h4 class="mg">Toxin</h4><div class="mg">A toxin (from Ancient Greek: toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms. Man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
  • Trabecular Bone
    <h4 class="mg">Trabecular Bone</h4><div class="mg">The trabecular bone contains the red bone marrow that is responsible for this blood cell production. The spongy bone, as it is frequently called, is highly vascular and is responsible for blood cell production.
  • Transcription
    <h4 class="mg">Transcription</h4><div class="mg">Transcription is the first step of a cell to produce something. The 'something' is called a product, like, for example a protein. The process of producing that 'something' is called gene expression. <br /><br />So, that first step (transcription) is to copy the DNA instructions for the protein to be produced (the DNA instructions are like a recipe for the protein) into RNA.<br /><br />It's like copying a recipe from an expensive cookbook (the DNA) onto a piece of paper (the RNA) and then use the piece of paper prepare the recipe.
  • Transmembrane
    <h4 class="mg">Transmembrane</h4><div class="mg">A transmembrane protein (TP) is a protein that goes from one side of a membrane through to the other side of the membrane. <br /><br />Many TPs function as gateways or "loading docks" to deny or permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane, to get into the cell, or out of the cell as in the case of waste byproducts. As a response to the shape of certain molecules these "freight handling" TPs may have special ways of folding up or bending that will move a substance through the biological membrane.<br /><img alt="Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface" src="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7059/images/nature04164-i1.0.jpg" />
  • Trial
    <h4 class="mg">Trial</h4><div class="mg">An experiment or intervention study where a specific treatment or other intervention is ‘tried’ on a group of people; it is a synonym for clinical trial.Unless otherwise stated, a trial might not include a control group (see Clinical trial, Controlled trial and Randomised controlled trial).<br />
  • Trilineage Hematopoiesis
    <h4 class="mg">Trilineage Hematopoiesis</h4><div class="mg">The manufacturing in the bone marrow of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
  • Tryptase
    <h4 class="mg">Tryptase</h4><div class="mg">One of the mediators released by mast cells when degranulating.<br /><br />The level tryptase in the blood is a potential indicator of mastocytosis.
  • Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor
    <h4 class="mg">Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor</h4><div class="mg">A drug that stops external cell signals to propagate into the cell. This prevents the action which would have been initiated by the stopped signal to occur.<br /><br />A tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades. TKIs are typically used as anti-cancer drugs.
  • Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor
    <h4 class="mg">Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor</h4><div class="mg">A drug that stops external cell signals to propagate into the cell. This prevents the action which would have been initiated by the stopped signal to occur.A tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades. TKIs are typically used as anti-cancer drugs.
  • Unremarkable
    <h4 class="mg">Unremarkable</h4><div class="mg">It means that viewing the organ/biopsy/structure/whatever with bare eyes (and maybe hands too) didn't reveal anything out of the ordinary.<br /><br />The term "gross" is used in medicine to mean the opposite of "microscopic" (eg, gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the level of whole organs and muscles, etc., whereas microscopic anatomy uses special instruments to study the cells and tissues that make up organs). "Unremarkable" is usually roughly synonymous with "normal" (eg, a physician's report might say that the head and neck exam was remarkable for swollen nodes, but the abdominal exam was unremarkable because nothing out of the ordinary was observed).
  • Vasodilation
    <h4 class="mg">Vasodilation</h4><div class="mg">The widening of blood vessels.When blood vessels dilate, the flow of blood is increased due to a decrease in vascular resistance.Therefore, dilation of arterial blood vessels decreases blood pressure.</div>
  • World Health Organisation
    <h4 class="mg">World Health Organisation</h4><div class="mg">WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.
  • X-Linked Dominant
    <h4 class="mg">X-linked dominant</h4><div class="mg">X-linked dominant disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Females are more frequently affected than males, and the chance of passing on an X-linked dominant disorder differs between men (illustration) and women (illustration). Families with an X-linked dominant disorder often have both affected males and affected females in each generation. A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons (no male-to-male transmission).<br /><br /><img class="alignleft" alt="In this example, a man with an X-linked dominant condition has two affected daughters and two unaffected sons." src="http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/xlinkdominantfather.jpg" />  <img alt="In this example, a woman with an X-linked dominant condition has an affected daughter, an affected son, an unaffected daughter, and an unaffected son." src="http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/xlinkdominantmother.jpg" />
  • X-Linked Recessive
    <h4 class="mg">X-Linked Recessive</h4><div class="mg">X-linked recessive disorders are also caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Males are more frequently affected than females, and the chance of passing on the disorder differs between men (illustration) and women (illustration). Families with an X-linked recessive disorder often have affected males, but rarely affected females, in each generation. A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons (no male-to-male transmission).
  • μg/mL
    <h4 class="mg">μg/mL</h4><div class="mg">Microgram per milliLiter.