An immature immunophenotype of bone marrow mast cells predicts for multilineage D816V KIT mutation in systemic mastocytosis.
D816V KIT mutation of bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MC) is a common feature to systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients. Nevertheless, occurrence of the KIT mutation in BM cell compartments other than MC is associated with progression to more aggressive forms of the disease and poor outcome in indolent SM (ISM). Here, we assessed the potential association between the immunophenotype of MC and multilineage KIT mutation in the BM of SM patients through the investigation of the flow cytometric protein expression profile (PEP) of bone marrow mast cells (BMMC) from 70 control individuals and 206 SM patients, classified according to the WHO (World Health Organization), and the degree of involvement of BM hematopoiesis by the D816V KIT mutation; additionally, we developed a score-based class prediction algorithm for the detection of SM cases with multilineage mutation. Our results show that aberrant expression of CD25 with a FcɛRI(lo), FSC(lo), SSC(lo) and CD45(lo) immature phenotype of BMMC, in the absence of coexisting normal MC in the BM, was associated with multilineage involvement by the D816V KIT mutation, regardless of the diagnostic subtype of the disease (for example, indolent vs aggressive SM), which supports the utility of the immunophenotype of BMMC as a surrogate marker to screen for multilineage KIT mutation in ISM.